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english/Deutsch - People have no reason to live if they are deprived of their history and their heritage
Category: SPIRITUALITY
Tags: Community Tribe Youth Marc David Lewis Chandler Canada Live Reason Suicide Parsifal

"People have no reason to live if they are deprived of their history and their heritage

The researchers studied indigenous communities in large parts of Western Canada.
 
What hit them almost immediately was the astonishing suicide rate among teenagers - 500 to 800 times the national average - 'which infected many of these commnituies'.
But not all of them.
Some indigenous communities reported zero suicide rates.

When these communities were divided into larger groups according to their membership of one of the 29 tribal councils in the province, the rates varied.... from a low of zero (applies to 6 tribal councils) to a high of 633 suicides per 100.000.
 
What could make the difference between places where young people had nothing to live and those where young people had nothing to die?
 
The researchers started talking to the children.
They collected stories.
They asked young people to talk about their lives, their goals and their future.
What they found was that young people from the suicide communities had no stories to tell.
They were unable to speak about their lives in a coherent, organized manner.
 
They had no clear sense of their past, their childhood and the generations that preceded them.
 
And their attempts to sketch possible futures were empty of form and meaning.
 
Unlike the other children, they could not see their lives as narratives, not as stories.
 
Their attempts to answer questions about their biography were interrupted by long pauses and unfinished sentences.
They had nothing but the present, nothing to look forward to.
So many of them took their own lives.
 
Chandler's team soon discovered profound social causes for the differences between these communities.

Where the young people had stories to tell, continuity was already built into their self-esteem through the structure of their society.
Tribal councils remained active and effective bodies of governing.
The elders were respected, and they took responsibility to teach the children who they were and where they came from.

The language and Customs of the tribe had been conscientiously preserved over the Decades.

And so the young people saw themselves as part of a larger narrative in which the stories of their lives fit and made sense.
In contrast, the suicide communities had lost their Traditions and Rituals:
The kids ate at McDonald's and watched a lot of TV.
Their life consisted of islands in nowhere.
Their life just didn't make any sense.
There was only the present, only the strange terrain of today".

 

 
- Marc David Lewis, The Biology of Desire: Why addiction is not a disease

Marc Lewis, PhD, is a neuroscientist and professor of developmental psychology.
Today he teaches at Radboud University in the Netherlands, previously at the University of Toronto for over 20 years.
He has written or co-authored more than fifty journal articles in neuroscience and developmental psychology.
He currently speaks and blogs on addiction science topics, and his critically acclaimed book 'Memoirs of a Addicted Brain:'A neuroscientist investigates his former life in drugs' is the first to mix memory and science in addiction studies.

parsifalrain, July 30, 2018                                                                                 
 

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   English-Deutsch - People Have No Reason to Live if They Are Deprived of Their History and Their Heritage by Parain on Scribd

 

Deutsch:

"Menschen haben keinen Grund zu leben, wenn sie ihrer Geschichte und ihres Erbes beraubt sind

Die Forscher untersuchten indigene Gemeinschaften in weiten Teilen Westkanadas.
 
Was sie fast sofort traf, war die erstaunliche Selbstmordrate unter Teenagern - 500 bis 800 mal der nationale Durchschnitt - , die viele dieser Gemeinschaften ansteckte.
Aber nicht alle.
Einige indigene Gemeinden berichteten von Selbstmordraten von Null.

'Als diese Gemeinschaften nach ihrer Zugehörigkeit zu einem der 29 Stammesräte in der Provinz in größere Gruppen eingeteilt wurden, variierten die Raten ... von einem Tiefststand von Null (gilt für 6 Stammesräte) bis zu einem Höchstwert von 633 Selbstmorden pro 100.000'.
 
Was könnte den Unterschied ausmachen zwischen Orten, wo Jugendliche nichts zu leben hatten, und denen, wo Jugendliche nichts zu sterben hatten?
 
Die Forscher begannen mit den Kindern zu sprechen.
Sie sammelten Geschichten.
Sie baten Jugendliche, über ihr Leben, ihre Ziele und ihre Zukunft zu sprechen.
Was sie fanden, war, dass junge Leute aus den Selbstmordgemeinschaften keine Geschichten zu erzählen hatten.
Sie waren nicht in der Lage, auf eine kohärente, organisierte Weise über ihr Leben zu sprechen.
 
Sie hatten keinen klaren Sinn für ihre Vergangenheit, ihre Kindheit und die Generationen, die ihnen vorausgingen.
 
Und ihre Versuche, mögliche Zukünfte zu skizzieren, waren leer von Form und Bedeutung.
 
Im Gegensatz zu den anderen Kindern konnten sie ihr Leben nicht als Erzählungen, nicht als Geschichten sehen.
 
Ihre Versuche, Fragen zu ihren Lebensgeschichten zu beantworten, wurden von langen Pausen und unvollendeten Sätzen unterbrochen.
Sie hatten nichts als die Gegenwart, nichts, worauf sie sich freuen konnten.
So viele von ihnen nahmen ihr eigenes Leben.
 
Das Team von Chandler entdeckte bald tiefgründige soziale Anlässe für die Unterschiede zwischen diesen Gemeinschaften.

Dort, wo die Jugendlichen Geschichten zu erzählen hatten, war die Kontinuität bereits durch die Struktur ihrer Gesellschaft in ihr Selbstgefühl eingebaut.
Stammesräte blieben aktive und wirksame Regierungsorgane.
Die Ältesten wurden respektiert, und sie übernahmen die Verantwortung den Kindern beizubringen, wer sie waren und woher sie gekommen waren.

Die Sprache und Sitten des Stammes waren über die Jahrzehnte gewissenhaft erhalten geblieben.

Und so sahen sich die Jugendlichen als Teil einer größeren Erzählung, in der die Geschichten ihres Lebens passten und Sinn machten.
Im Gegensatz dazu hatten die Selbstmordgemeinschaften ihre Traditionen und Rituale verloren:
Die Kinder aßen bei McDonald's und sahen viel fern.
Ihr Leben bestand aus Inseln im Nirgendwo.
Ihr Leben ergab einfach keinen Sinn.
Es gab nur die Gegenwart, nur das merkwürdige Terrain von heute".


 
- Marc David Lewis, Die Biologie der Begierde: Warum Sucht keine Krankheit ist

 

Marc Lewis, PhD, ist Neurowissenschaftler und Professor für Entwicklungspsychologie.
Heute lehrt er an der Radboud Universität in den Niederlanden, zuvor über 20 Jahre lang an der Universität von Toronto.
Er hat mehr als fünfzig Zeitschriftenartikel in Neurowissenschaften und Entwicklungspsychologie verfasst oder mitverfasst.
Gegenwärtig spricht und bloggt er zu Themen der Suchtwissenschaft, und sein von der Kritik gefeiertes Buch 'Memoirs of a Addicted Brain: 'Ein Neurowissenschaftler untersucht sein früheres Leben in Drogen', ist das erste, das Erinnerungen und Wissenschaft in Suchtstudien mischt.

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