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Was there a Moses ?
Tags: Moses yhwh Pharao Egypt Palestine Israel Israelites Bible Scripture Ramses Pithom Necho Parsifal Geise

Was there a Moses ?

Knowledge is dangerous - for all who live from lies.
On the basis of this knowledge, you can conclude for yourself why you should have a prescribed opinion on certain things, but should not know anything about.
He who strives for cognizance must not close himself off from any Veda; it is necessary to examine everything.

False public knowledge:

Who is somewhat concerned with history and also draws from independently multiple sources dating from before the old, pre-Christian time will sooner or later recognize that 'our' western history, written in the history books, wikis but foremost bumming around in the (noteworthy) minds of the caste of (inherent in this system) opinion makers such as the always politically correct dictate has nothing, but certainly no thing to do with reality.
For example, heroes and conquerors were invented, and today earlier European advanced civilizations are portrayed as despicable, uncultured and barbaric.
Practically the entire Middle Ages were added and the history from about 614 A.D. to about 911 A.D. was freely conceived by subsequent scientists up to our century by forgeries and adopted false dating dates.
(Niemitz, Illig, Topper, Geise)

'Only he who knows the past has a future!'

- William of Humboldt

It is in any case the right time to tread on the toes of the old, encrusted, self-satisfied historical apparatus, and that is so good !

Today's scientific findings are already outdated tomorrow.
We see this every day.
This is really happening at such a rapid pace today that not only textbooks from the seventies are already completely outdated.
For example, the origin of the universe and the earth is being more and more moved rearwards by what is commonly called science.
Practically from Year to Year by several million (billion?) Years back into the past.
I have the feeling that 'our' scientists only guess until they say to themselves: 'That's how it could have been, that's what it sounds like'.
The theories they have put forward cannot be accepted as a fact, because they are only constructs and nobody was an eyewitness at the time indicated.
The same applies to the so-called evolution, which is rightly called into question today.
The whole evolutionary history represented so far is ultimately also only a theory !

And one theory is the basis of the next and the next.

It's nothing, nothing at all, proven !
It's time we refuted the lowest theory.
Then the whole pretty lie-theory building of the past-development-scientists-guild collapses with a loud roar !

Personally, I see no reason to believe, for example, the illogical theory of evolution of established science.
Here I praise the theses of François de Sarre, according to which man has not developed from an ape-like animal, but vice versa, the monkey is a side branch of the originally upright primitive man.
Sarre (by the way, there were other scientists who advocated this theory in the 1920s) has built his theory completely logically, and it has at least the same raison d'être as the official 'monkey theory'.
(We are talking about 'humans' and not human-like apes or ape-like human ancestors)

parsifalrain, August 03, 1721

'Moses' and the Burning Bush, attributed to Dieric Bouts

Everyone knows the legislator of the Bible, but comprehensive, sincere research has long since discarded its historicity.
Is there still a historical person behind the legendary figure ?
Or was Moses just a literary fiction that helped lead Israel down a special religious path ?
Did a thorn bush once burn on Mount Horeb and Moses proclaim the Ten Commandments of Adonai (yhwh [unpronounceable] = J-ach-Weh or 'God' of Gods) to his people, leading the 'Israelites' from Egypt to Canaan (being a land of milk and honey)*) in exodus?

Fiction Moses
After all, ancient scholars nowadays consider it to have been established that the founder of religion and Sinai miracle worker never existed - at least not in the form in which the Bible presents.
For one and a half Centuries (!) archaeologists sifted through the Egyptian desert sand and found not the slightest trace of an Israeli tribe; the search for evidence of the alleged land seizure of the 'Israelites under Moses' successor Joshua was equally unsuccessful.

'Never', postulates the Danish Old Testamentist Niels Peter Lemche, 'had lived an Abraham, just as little an Isaac, a Jacob.
'There has never been an exodus from Egypt through which the people of Israel have escaped an alleged oppression of Pharaoh'.
'The reports of the Bible', Lemche mocks, "were as good sources for researching antiquity as Walter Scott's 'novel Ivanhoe' for the reconstruction of the history of England in the Middle Ages".

The scholars only discuss when exactly the Mosaic religion was born - unanimous opinion: not before the Babylonian imprisonment of the Jews (586-539 BC) - and whether the literary figure of its founder is based on some historical figure.
In a book published in 2013, the Berlin Egyptologist Rolf Krauss identifies the Egyptian counter-Pharao Amun-masesa, a grandson of Ramses II, as his historical model.

Nevertheless, the power of the exodus myth seems unbroken.
'The persecution of Jews begins with their slavery in Egypt,' claims ... renowned US history jewess professor Gerda Kronstein Lerner, for example.
In a much-noticed speech to the German Bundestag in January 1996, Israeli President Ezer Weizman spoke in the first person about the fate of his people: from the migrations of Abraham to the exodus from Egypt to the persecution of Jews in the Third Reich. A Moses biography is even available from Rowohlt ('Mit Selbstzeugnisse[n] und Bilddokumenten') yeah, ('including ego-documents and pictorial records)', which spreads source-free science and above all anti-Egyptian clichés and compares the alleged slavery of the Israelites there with the Nazi terror - Egypt has simply had a bad press in the West since the triumphal procession of the Moses-saga.

The story that Moses led the people of Israel out of Egyptian bondage at the end of the second pre-Christian millennium, drove apart the sea with yhwh's help, drowned a Pharaoh and his army and received the Ten Commandments at Sinai has become firmly engrained in collective consciousness.
Christianity and Islam adopted the legend in their messages of salvation and helped it to achieve mass effectiveness, and to this day the myth persistently asserts itself against its scientific deconstruction.

Even the Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire (1694 - 1778) wondered how it should be possible that such an accumulation of miracles in non-biblical literature remained completely without resonance.
Even Herodotus, the father of historiography (484 - 425 BC), knows nothing of a people with such a pre-history, who also - in the ancient world a curiosity highly worth reporting - believe in a God exclusively reserved for them.

As far as the complete silence of Egyptian sources is concerned, the Jerusalem Bible Encyclopaedia (german 1990) provides the memorable explanation that the 'for Egypt shameful excerpt of Israeli slaves' had not been mentioned by the Pharaonic historians, just as these 'also used to conceal other defeats of Egypt'.
Of course, it does not fit in that the pharaohs of the 19th dynasty (1293-1185 BC), under whose aegis the traditional view of the exodus was supposed to have taken place, were powerful and belligerent rulers.
Jean-François Champollion, the founder of modern Egyptology, already mocked the idea that some desert tribe was able 'to make the sceptre tremble in a Pharaoh's hand'.

An ample century after Champollion's death, Hollywood director Cecil B. DeMille put Yul Brynner as Ramses II. into a fantasy costume and let Charlton Heston do gimmicks in front of him as Moses until the ruler Zepter actually trembled at least on the screen.
Nobody seemed to disagree with the evident disproportion of the forces of the two parties; after all, yhwh was on the side of the mutinous slaves.

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weird evidence
For obvious reasons, DeMille had chosen the best-known of all pharaohs for his filming.
The scholars of the 19th and early 20th centuries, however, regarded Ramses II only as 'Pharaoh of oppression'; they concluded this from the biblical report, according to which the Israelites had to render service in the construction of the cities of Pi-Ramesse (House of Ramses) and Pithom. (Pithom was actually only built under Necho II around 600 BC.)
Rameses' successor Merneptah, in turn, circulated as 'Pharaoh of the Exodus'.
Accordingly, Bible fundamentalists reacted with dismay when in 1882 the mummies of almost all the rulers of the New Kingdom were found, including the corps of Merneptah, whose body was actually supposed to lie on the bottom of the sea.

Dishevelled by archaeology and text criticism, the Holy Scripture gradually lost its reputation as a historical testimony, and in place of the biblical figures, their inventors came into the focus of research.
It turned out that the five Moses books were by no means, as their position at the beginning of the Old Testament suggests, the oldest texts of which could be.
It is strange anyway that the absolute central figure of the Jewish religion hardly appears outside the books ascribed to him in the Bible.
Of the 16 prophets, only four (Jeremiah, Daniel, Micah, Malachi) know him, and they also mention the jhwh intimacy in passing.

Moses also appears very late in non-biblical texts: for the first time around 300 BC, a millennium after his alleged earth stroll.
A dozen or so ancient authors, Jews, Greeks and Romans, announce his deeds in the aftermath.
The Greeks paint a blasphemous picture, the man of God figures there as the leader of lepers and marauding Asians who are driven out by the Egyptians because they mock their cults and destroy temples.
The Jewish authors, on the other hand, glorify the legislator as a teacher of humanity.

The period from 200 BC to 100 AD was a period of religious fermentation in Palestine and the Jewish Mediterranean Diaspora; here Judaism and Hellenism were in the theological clinch, and the legendary figure of the Jewish founder of the desert-religion also fell between the fronts.
On the one hand was the spiritually tolerant polytheism of the Mediterranean peoples with their naive cult of images, on the other the pictorial, dogmatic God (one God for everything) of Israel.

'With them everything that is holy with us is unholy',

the Roman historian Tacitus found and wondered that the Jews 'hate all other people like enemies'.

The Jewish claim to religious exclusivity - the Heidelberg Egyptologist Jan Assmann describes this 'new type of religion' as 'counter-religion' - aroused anti-Jewish reflexes in the Greeks; Jewish authors such as Artapan or Flavius Josephus responded to this with apologetic legends.
With Artapan, Moses advances to a kind of premature Leonardo da Vinci:
He invented ships, machines to transport stones, Egyptian weapons, irrigation systems, war equipment and philosophy. To the priests he showed the sacred signs'.
Josephus tried to prove that the Jews were the oldest people on earth and praised the superiority of the religion founded by Moses over ancient competitive theologies.

leper-leader, superhuman
Both are propaganda images and have nothing to do with historicity.
Thus Assmann comes to the paradoxical conclusion that Moses is 'not a figure of history, but one of memory'.
According to Assmann, the 'Mosaic distinction' has found its literary expression 'in the story of the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt'.
Egypt became 'the symbol of the excluded, rejected, religiously untrue'.

In other words:
The exodus did not take place around 1250 BC in reality, but almost 1000 Years later in the heaven of ideas.
The people of Israel did not leave Egypt, but rather the cosmopolitan and polytheistic ancient world of the gods, in order to pay homage to the one and only god, the allmighty god of the desert jhwh, reserved exclusively for his own people.

But who invented the 'idea' Moses ?
Moses detective Krauss believes that a single author - the so-called 'Yahwist' (or 'Jahwist') - was not only the author of the biblical Moses stories, but par excellence their inventor.
He dates the life of this 'highly talented writer' to the years between 480 and 420 BC; before that there could be no talk of Jewish monotheism.
At that time the Persians were the leading power in the Mediterranean region, and the Berlin Egyptologist is certain that their beliefs influenced the Jewish understanding of God:
In the Old Persian model, the Creator God makes no distinction between peoples; however, the Yahwist proclaims the new idea, inspiring the Jews, that the World Creator prefers a certain nation'.

This super-author used the ancient Egyptian tradition of the counter-king Amun-masesa as a dressmaker's dummy to design his Moses dress on; he ascribed the rebel a Hebrew ancestry (using an exposition by the Persian king Cyrus).
The rest is fictional and dates far back to prehistoric times.
For the Jews who returned from forced Babylonian exile but were still under foreign rule, it was about the 'spiritual acquisition of the past', as the old master of Bible criticism, Julius Wellhausen, put it: about the creation - vulgo: invention - of an identity-forming tradition.

If Krauss is right, the pious can take comfort in the fact that Moses did not live, but at least one person of a similar religious-educational format: the Yahwist.

Prince Moses, a counter-Pharaoh ?
There could be a historical model for the Moses stories, says the Berlin Egyptologist Rolf Krauss: the Ramses grandson Amun-masesa, who rebelled against Pharaoh Sethos II.

'Jewish myths that are not in the Bible actually give more information about Prince Moses than the Old Testament', writes Krauss.
This mythical prince is an Egyptian king's son who goes on a campaign to Cush (Kush) (Ethiopia) on behalf of Pharaoh, lives there as regent and finally gets into a fight with Pharaoh.

In search of a historical figure with these dates of life - and a certain similarity in name to Moses - Krauss came across the Egyptian Mase-saja, who under Pharaoh Merneptah became viceroy in Kush, later rebelled against Ethos II, his father, and called himself Amun-masesa.
In the annals of traditional Egyptology Amun-masesa bears the name Amenmesse and exercises a fleeting royal rule; according to Krauss he was only an anti-pharaoh.
Amun-masesa was both grandson and great-grandson of Ramses II, begotten by Ramses' grandson Sethos II and Ramses' daughter Tachat.
The family tree of biblical Moses is also unusual: He is the child of Levi's grandson Amram and Levi's daughter Jokebed.
In any case, there are many parallels between the legendary prince Moses and Mase-saja/Amun-masesa: Both were born under Rameses II, claim to the throne, campaign in Kush, reign supreme there and are in throne conflict with their father/Pharao.

In the fight with Sethos Amun-masesa finally lost, although he could advance to Thebes (the capital of Egypt during the period of the New Kingdom (1570 - 1069 BC) and became an important center of worship of the god Amun (also known as Amon or Amen, a combination of the earlier gods Atum and Ra) and even began to build his royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings there, of which traces still bear witness today.
In Karnak, in the great temple of Amun in Thebes, there are six royal statues of reddish stone bearing the engraved name of Sethos II.
On two of these statues Egyptologists discovered traces of the name of Amun-masesa among the hieroglyphs forming the name Sethos - the father took over the sculptures of the son and had the son's name erased.

According to Krauss, it is conceivable that Amun-masesa moved down the Nile from Upper Egypt to seek a military decision in the delta.
The goal of such an advance should have been the city of Ramses, where Sethos II resided.
After his defeat, Amun-masesa, who may have been cut off from his retreat to the Nile Valley, may have fled with his followers towards Sinai.
It is possible that the beaten heir to the throne with his exodus carried smaller tribes with him and thus laid the foundation stone for the later myth.
After that, Amun-masesa's traces are lost - to reappear centuries later, alienated in literary terms ?
Krauss: 'Apart from the fairytale of the exposition, the Jewish legends about the Egyptian prince Moses read like a retelling of Mase-saia's life story'.

Guys, go around the world with your eyes open !
Deal with conflicting opinions !
Even if one cannot agree with every point, there are always some clues that lead to new considerations.
And even if you 'just' try to refute an assertion and thereby search through other sources in order to come to new results in this way - or not - it is extremely important that you think about it at all.
This is the only way to gain new insights, not if you consume preconceived opinions without comment.

*) pre-Israelite Palestine

The pre-Israelite Palestine was already a very fertile country.
The Assyrians settled on the coastal plain of Palestine.
Nineveh, an ancient city on the left bank of the Tigris, was already populated in prehistoric times, experienced its greatest prosperity as the capital of the Assyrian Empire under Sanherib (704-681), and Assurbanipal also resided here.
Ishtar (Astarte) was the most important Goddess of Babylon and Assyria as Goddess of Love, sexual desire and fertility.

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