FACTS | Part 2: Who the Heck are You?
Tags: S0 News

Published on 11 Aug 2018

Daily Sun, Earth and Space Science


Atomic bombs and oil addiction herald Earth’s new epoch: The Anthropocene
Plutonium from atomic weapons testing

Plutonium from atomic weapons testing, found in soil beginning in 1951, could mark the Anthropocene.



Just after World War II, when the atomic bombs fell and our thirst for coal and oil became a full-blown addiction, Earth entered the Anthropocene, a new geologic time when humanity’s environmental reach left a mark in sediments worldwide. That’s the majority conclusion of theAnthropocene Working Group, a collection of researchers that has spent the past 7 years quietly studying whether the term, already popular, should be submitted as a formal span of geologic time.

After tallying votes this month, the group has decided to propose the postwar boom of the late 1940s and early 1950s as the Anthropocene’s start date. The group will ask the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), the bureaucracy that governs geologic time, to recognize the Anthropocene as a series, the stratigraphic equivalent of an epoch, on par with the Holocene and Pleistocene that preceded it. Colin Waters, the group’s secretary and a geologist at the British Geological Survey in Keyworth, will reveal the group’s recommendations on 29 August at the International Geological Congress in Cape Town, South Africa.

The group won’t submit a formal proposal yet. To do so, it must gather multiple cores of sediment from around the planet and show that they contain a sharp transition in geochemical tracers that is likely to persist as a permanent part of the rock record; the core with the best example of the transition would then serve as a “golden spike,” marking the Anthropocene’s start. These cores could come from lakebeds, ocean floors, ice sheets—or even corals or tree rings. But they must capture the “Great Acceleration”: the postwar period when fossil fuel combustion took off, says Jan Zalasiewicz, a geologist at the University of Leicester in the United Kingdom who convened the group. “We’ll go and get our hands dirty, beginning to look for sections that we can formally propose.”

Those sections will have to be rich with multiple signatures, as the Anthropocene proposal faces deep skepticism from stratigraphers. “The voting members of the International Commission on Stratigraphy look at these things critically,” says Stan Finney, chair of ICS and a geologist at California State University, Long Beach.

He and other stratigraphers doubt that their standards can be properly applied to decades-old mud and silt rather than the solid rock that records older stratigraphic boundaries. Theyquestion the value of the Anthropocene for their science, which seeks to draw coherent chronologies out of sedimentary rocks. Some also resent the role that scientists from other disciplines such as climate science have played in driving the proposal and see it as a political statement.

Should ICS decide against the Anthropocene, some stratigraphers fear, they could be swamped with bad press. “I feel like a lighthouse with a huge tsunami wave coming at it,” Finney says. Phil Gibbard, a stratigrapher at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom and a working group member who voted against the proposal, also worries about a backlash. “We’re nervous,” he says.

The working group, a mix of 35 geologists, climate scientists, archaeologists, and others, considered multiple dates. There were votes for an early start to the Anthropocene, 7000 years ago, when humanity began converting forests en masse to pastures and cropland, perhaps causing carbon dioxide (CO2) to spike, and also for 3000 years ago, when lead smelting tainted the ground. More recently, they considered 1610, when pollen from the New World appeared in Europe, and the early 1800s, the start of the Industrial Revolution. But the most votes went to the Great Acceleration.

The group’s decision to go for a single, recent start date for the Anthropocene disappoints Bill Ruddiman, an emeritus professor of environmental science at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. “It is a mistake to formalize the term by rigidly affixing it to a single time,” he says, “especially one that misses most of the history of the major transformation of Earth’s surface.” Many archaeologists also favor the 7000-year-old date, when early humans began to alter the planet’s surface. But the working group was looking for a signature of global, human-driven change that would wind up in the rock record, not the first traces of human influence on the local landscape.

In a study published in Science earlier this year, the working group highlighted their most likely proxies. Materials that rose to mass use in the 1950s, such as plastics and elemental aluminum, are prime targets. Plutonium from atmospheric nuclear testing, first visible in the soil in 1951, will linger in sediments globally for the next 100,000 years as it decays into uranium and then lead. But perhaps the most promising proxy comes from recent work that has shown, across 71 lakebeds worldwide, a 1950s spike in fly ash residue from the high-temperature combustion of coal and oil. “This is a permanent signal,” Waters says. “These particles will not be degrading.” He adds that the ash is directly tied to the human-driven increase in CO2 that sparked the notion of the Anthropocene in the first place.

Until this year, the group had not sought a golden spike; instead, they favored defining the Anthropocene simply by a starting date, a method stratigraphers have only used for units of time within the Precambrian, more than 540 million years ago, when clear dividing signals have been impossible to find in the rock. But several ICS members, including Finney, made it clear a golden spike would be necessary for any chance of approval.

The group’s proposal may not satisfy him. But Waters hopes the ICS will consider the chosen golden spike on its merits. “Just because it’s thin and short duration, the fact that it’s very sizable is the most important thing,” he says.

Zalasiewicz adds that the marks of the Great Acceleration will endure, even if somehow humanity reverses global warming and gives half the planet over to conservation. And if humanity doesn’t change course, then future stratigraphers might need to elevate the Anthropocene’s rank in the geological hierarchy, he says. “An epoch would be thinking too small.” 

Sinkholes: The Groundbreaking Truth
Tags: Earth Changes Sinkholes

Something is happening to the ground beneath our feet

The earth is literally opening up

Before 2010, sinkholes were a relatively uncommon phenomenon

Now they are appearing almost daily

But why so many sinkholes and why now?

In a word… electricity

Strange as it may sound

The Electric Universe theory, or Plasma Cosmology, can account for this unprecedented phenomenon

Plasma cosmology sees the universe as a giant electric motor being driven by the exchange of charged particles

“Gravitational systems are the ashes of prior electrical systems” – Hannes Alfven

Which explains the mechanical and electromagnetic forces responsible for sinkhole formation

Sinkholes are usually explained away by ruptured underground water pipes or gradual soil erosion

Even in places where no such piping exists

While standard scientific theories may account for a few

They do not explain ones like these

Nor can it account for the vast number of new sinkholes forming around the globe

Here is a simple illustration of the electromagnetic and mechanical forces behind sinkhole formation

The activity of the sun is directly related to the rotational speed of the earth

The more energy that is produced by the sun, the faster the earth spins

Like an electric motor, there is an charged potential difference that drives our planet’s rotation

The sun is currently in a period similar to the Maunder Minimum, with very low solar activity

Low solar radiation means less positively charged protons reaching the upper atmosphere of the earth

The potential difference between the the positively charged upper atmosphere and the negatively charged earth decreases

Resulting a slowing down of the earth’s rotation

A slower spin causes the earth to become less oblong like an oval and more circular like a sphere

The induced mechanical stress causes deformations

Resulting in cracks, cavities and fissures

There is also a potential difference between the earth’s crust and the core

And because the upper atmosphere is now less positive

It also attracts less electrons from inside the earth to its surface

Thus decreasing the potential difference between the surface and the core

This potential difference acts as a binder of the planet, pulling the surface and the core together

When the potential difference drops, the earth’s crust becomes loose, creating pockets of space beneath the surface

The stress on the crust produced by these two combined mechanical and electrical forces results in an increase in earthquake activity

This loosening of the earth’s crust produces cracks and openings resulting in an increase of volcanic activity

And lastly, the subterranean space created by the loosening results in the increased formation of sinkholes

Sinkholes are not not an isolated phenomenon

They are also related to earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, strange sounds and extreme weather

This is only the beginning

For more information…

Earth Changes and the Human-Cosmic Connection

Published by –

Music: Devi Prayer by Craig Pruess
Uploaded by relicsongs
Animation by Michael Rasmussen


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